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International Journal of Biotechnology Research

International Journal of Biotechnology Research Vol. 8(1), pp. 001-010, March, 2024 ISSN 2328-3505 ©2024 Academe Research Journals



Enhancing Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants using Molecular Markers in Genetic Engineering

*Ugandhar T1, Jayesh T Salve2, D.D. Asaram3, Anitha Devi.U4, Srinivas.T5

1Department of Botany, Govt. Degree College Mahabubabad-506101

2Department of Botany, Pratap College, Amalner (Autonomous) Amalner – 425401

3Department of Botany, SSVPS's, L. K. Dr. P. R. Ghogrey Science College, Deopur, Dhule-

4Department of Botany, Indira Priyadarshini College, Nampally Hyderabad. -500012

5Department of Botany, Govt Degree College Siricilla-505301

*Corresponding Author E-mail: dhartudr@gmail.com

Accepted 21 January, 2024


Plants in agricultural settings regularly confront four significant environmental challenges heat, cold, drought, and salt that incessantly jeopardize harvest yields. Elevated concentrations of these abiotic stressors can disrupt plant growth by interfering with essential biosynthetic pathways, nutrient regulation, and vital components. From a genetic standpoint, stress acts as a hindrance, impeding the complete expression of hereditary traits. To surmount these challenges and gain valuable insights, various molecular markers play distinctive roles in enhancing stress tolerance. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers prove instrumental in identifying hybrids capable of withstanding drought and salt stress. Alternatively, Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) emerge as reliable markers for assessing stress tolerance. The critical role of these markers extends to mapping stress-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) and identifying chromosomal areas intricately involved in stress response mechanisms. These molecular markers assume significance by unraveling the dynamics of genes in response to stress, including ancestral genes governing salt and dehydrin production amid drought and salinity. They serve as navigational aids for scientists in pinpointing and manipulating stress-tolerance genes. Marker-assisted breeding, facilitated by DNA markers, innovative methodologies, and modified markers, enables precise genetic modifications in crops, bolstering their resilience against environmental stresses. The strategic utilization of these markers becomes increasingly vital in the pursuit of more resilient and stress-tolerant crop varieties as our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of stress responses continues to expand. 

Keywords: Abiotic stress, Agricultural settings, Environmental challenges, Harvest yields, Biosynthetic pathways, Nutrient regulation, Genetic standpoint, Hereditary traits, and Molecular markers